Important Note: Remember to consult a physician prior to beginning a new exercise program!
There are three distinct systems that provide muscles with the energy to sustain or repeat intense effort. While all three systems are detailed for your interest, the primary system used in shooting is the Aerobic system.
Anaerobic Alactic Energy Systems
- requires no oxygen
- produces no lactic acid
- uses energy consisting of chemical-energy stores of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP) stored in the cells for fuel
- main source of energy for activities involving bursts of high-speed or high-resistance movements lasting up to 10 seconds
Anaerobic Alactic Energy Systems Training
- This type of training must be based on intervals, and activity must be related to the movement patterns desired.
- Intensity should match or exceed the demands of the sport in question and is usually maximal.
- Work time per repetition must not exceed 10 seconds; otherwise, energy stores will be exhausted, and the anerobic lactic system must supply energy.
- The work/pause ratio should be 1:5 or 1:6, this ratio allows the ATP and CP to build up again.
- The work volume of an individual set must not exceed 60 seconds. For instance, an athlete could do 10 repetitions of 5 seconds of work followed by 25 seconds of rest; in this case, the work volume of the set is 10 times 5 seconds, or 50 seconds. Another possibility would be to do 6 repetitions of 10 seconds of work followed by 60 seconds of rest; in this case, the set’s work volume is 60 seconds (6 times 10 seconds).
- The athlete must pause for 3 to 10 minutes between sets. Such rest allows more complete recovery and ensures that the correct energy system is forced to function.
- The athlete may train this system at most every other day, that is, at most three times a week.
- Training programs should last for 8 to 12 weeks.
Anaerobic Lactic Energy Systems
- requires no oxygen
- produces lactic acid
- system runs entirely on muscle carbohydrate (glycogen stored in the muscle)
- chief sources of energy for activities lasting between 10 seconds and 2 minutes
- peak output for this system occurs in all-out efforts of about 30 seconds
Anaerobic Lactic Energy Systems Training
- Interval methods are useful, but the first step is a base of aerobic fitness.
- Intensity must be maximal or near maximal.
- Work time per repetition must be between 10 seconds and 2 minutes.
- The work/pause ratio should be 1:5 or 1:6.
- The athlete should pause for at least 10 to 15 minutes between sets, with the amount of time varying from athlete to athlete. Between sets, the athlete should do light aerobic work – it speeds recovery, removes lactic acid, and removes the focus from the long period between sets.
- Total volume should not exceed 10 to 12 minutes. Initial training volume may be considerably less – perhaps 2 to 3 minutes.
- The athlete may do this kind of training at most every other day, that is, at most three times a week.
- Training periods should last 8 to 12 weeks.
Aerobic Energy System
- requires oxygen
- produces no lactic acid
- main source of energy for activity lasting more than 2 minutes for prolonged continuous or prolonged intermittent effort
- uses carbohydrates and fats for fuel, and the blood brings this fuel to the muscles from outside the muscles
- consequently, increasing the capacity of this system to produce energy requires making changes in the muscles and the systems supporting them
Aerobic System Training
- increase duration of training, then intensity – that way, both the capacity to produce oxygen and the capacity to deliver oxygen improve. In continuous work, the athlete should work at the upper edge of his or her comfort zone
- The total work volume should be between 15 and 60 minutes for both continuous and interval training. If training is continuous, the goal should be to train for 30 to60 minutes or longer.
- In aerobic interval training, work time per repetition may be as brief as 10 or 15 seconds to as long as 5 to 7 minutes.
- Pause periods should roughly equal work times; the recommended work/pause ratio should range from 2:1 to 1:2.
- The athlete must do this kind of training at least every other day and may do workouts for this system up to 6 days a week. Athletes should do aerobic interval training at most every second day.
- Allow a training period of 3 to 6 weeks for aerobic base training, 3 to 6 weeks for the aerobic interval stage.
- Athletes can maximize their aerobic endurance training by doing anaerobic lactic workouts in the last few weeks before a major competition.
Coaching Association of Canada. National Coaching Certification Program: Coaching Theory Level 1 Canada: Coaching Association of Canada, 1988.
Coaching Association of Canada. National Coaching Certification Program: Coaching Theory Level 2 Canada: Coaching Association of Canada, 1988.