ISSF Olympic Shooting Sport Events
Today, shooters aim at a variety of simulated targets. The 17 Olympic shooting sport events include ten for men and seven for women across a range of firearms. Shooters contest in four different disciplines: five with rifles, one in running target, five with pistols and six events with shotguns.
In the rifle events, competitors earn points with their shots at a 10-ring target, and the shooter with the most points at the end of the competition wins. Shooters fire from standing, kneeling and prone positions.
In the finals, the 10 rings on the target are divided to produce more rings, making the highest score for a shot 10.9. The final-round score is added to the qualification-round score to determine the winner. Normally, scores range from one point for hitting the outside zone to 10 for a hit in the 10 ring. The higher score generally is awarded when a shot hits a line between two zones.
In all qualification rounds, except shotgun, ties are broken by comparing the last 10 shots. If the score remains level, the count-back is applied to the previous 10 shots, and so on. In finals, shoot-offs decide all ties.
In the standing position for all rifle events, the rifle is held with both hands and rests on the shoulder, and the left arm may be supported on the chest or hip.
When kneeling, the right-handed shooter may touch the ground with the toe of the right foot, the right knee and the left foot. The left knee may support the left elbow, but the point of the elbow must be no more than 10 centimetres past or 15 centimetres behind the point of the knee. Rifle shooters may use a soft, cylindrical roll to support the inside of the ankle when kneeling.
In the prone position, a shooter may not let the rifle rest against, or touch, any object. The right-handed shooter's left forearm must form an angle of at least 30 degrees from horizontal. The maximum changeover time between positions is 10 minutes for free-rifle events.
The shooter fires three rounds of 40 shots each in the prone, standing and kneeling positions at a target 50 meters away. Prior to the first competition shot, any number of sighting shots may be fired. The rifle is a 5.6 mm small-bore (.22 l.r.) single loader whose weight may not exceed 8 kilos. The center ten, which is as large as a "Dime" coin, must be hit at a distance of 50 meters within a time limit of 45 minutes in the prone position, 75 minutes in the standing position and 60 minutes in the kneeling position.
The best eight shooters from this opening program are qualified for the final. The final consists of 10 shots in the standing position with a time limit of 75 seconds per shot. Each shot is evaluated in decimal tenths and added to the score of the opening program.
Sixty shots are fired in the prone position. Prior to the first competition shot, any number of sighting shots may be fired. The competition time, including the sighting shots, is 75 minutes. The distance of the target, the size of its center and the gun correspond to the 3x40 free rifle match.
In the final, 10 shots are fired with a time limit of 45 seconds per shot in the "prone" position. The decimal score is added to the opening score to determine the winner.
Three rounds of 20 shots are fired in the prone, standing and kneeling positions. The time limit for all three positions, including the sighting shots, is 135 minutes. The gun is a 5.6 mm smallbore free rifle (.22 l.r.) whose weight may not exceed 6.5 kilos. The shots are once again fired at the target's center, which is the size of a "Dime" coin, at a distance of 50 meters.
In the final, the best eight female shooters fire 10 shots in the standing position with a time limit of 75 seconds per shot, and the score is evaluated in decimal tenths. The final score is then added to the opening score to determine the total result.
Permitted are compressed air rifles and carbon dioxide rifles with a caliber of 4.5 mm (.177 cal.) and a maximum weight of 5.5 kilograms. In the main competition, only the entire rings are counted. The men complete 60 shots in 105 minutes with any number of sighting shots before the first competition shot is fired. The women complete 40 shots within a maximum of 75 minutes, including the sighting shots. The shots are fired in the standing position at a very thin, "threadlike" center of exactly 0.5 mm at a distance of 10 meters.
In the following final, each of the eight finalists only has 75 seconds to fire each of his 10 final shots. The points achieved are subdivided into decimal tenths. A shot that hits directly in the center of the ten counts as a 10.9, whereas a shot just barely touching the center counts as 10.0. The results from the normal program and the final are added together.
In the men's running target event, competitors shoot at a moving paper target from a distance of 10 metres. The event involves a "slow run" and a "fast run". The shooter stands unsupported and shoots in a standing position, starting with their rifles at hip level and raising them only after the target appears.
With a 4.5 mm compressed air rifle or carbon dioxide rifle (.177 cal.) and sighting telescope, 60 shots are fired, 30 of them in a slow round and 30 in a rapid round. In the slow round, the target, which is pulled across a 2 meter wide aisle, is visible for five seconds, beginning once from the left and once from the right. In the rapid round, the target is only visible for 2.5 seconds. The match is shot at a distance of 10 meters, and the center of the target is 5.5 mm in size. The telescope may not exceed 300 mm in length and may only have a maximum fourfold magnifying power. The rifle, including the sight, may not weigh more than 5.5 kilos.
In the following 10 shot, rapid fire final in the standing position, the shots are evaluated in decimal tenths. The scores of the opening program and final are added together.To the Top
Pistol events are scored the same as rifle events, with competitors aiming at a 10-ring target. Pistol shooters use a standing position and must hold and fire the handgun with one hand, with the wrist clearly free of support.
Within a maximum of 120 minutes, any number of sighting shots plus 60 competition shots are fired at a target 50 meters away. A 5.6 mm pistol (.22 l.r.) as single-loader is permitted in the competition. The center of the target is 50 mm in size, and the gun must be fired, single-handed, in the standing position.
In the following final, 10 shots must be completed within a maximum of 75 seconds per shot. Here again, the score is evaluated in decimal tenths and added to the opening score.
This program consists of two rounds of 30 shots each, and one round consists of two series of five shots fired in eight, six, and four seconds. A series of five shots is fired at five targets, 75 cm apart, at a distance of 25 meters. The match is started with a command for the shooters from a 45° position with a 5.6 mm small-bore pistol (.22 short or long) that has a maximum weight of 1,260 grams. In the final of the best six shooters, two series of five shots must again be completed in four seconds, and the shots are evaluated in decimal tenths. The scores of the opening program and final are added together at the end.
The score consists of a combination of 30 precision shots and 30 rapid fire shots. At a distance of 25 meters, a center of 50 mm must be hit in the so-called precision semi-round. Six series of five shots must be completed in five minutes each. In the rapid fire semi-round, the center is twice as large (100 mm), and six series of five shots must be completed in 3 seconds each with a 7 second break in between. The pistol may not weigh more than 1.4 kg and must have a caliber of 5.6 (.22 l.r.)
In the following final of the eight best shooters, 2 series of 5 shots are completed in the rapid fire manner. The final score is evaluated in decimal tenths and added to the opening score.
Permitted are 4.5 mm compressed air pistols and carbon dioxide pistols (.177 cal.) with a maximum length of 420 mm, height of 200 mm and width of 50 mm as well as a maximum weight of 1.7 kg. The trigger resistance must be at least 500 grams. The match is shot, single-handed, in the standing position at a distance of 10 meters, and the center of the target is 11.5 mm in diameter. The time limit for men with any number of sighting shots and the 60 competition shots is 105 minutes. For women, 40 shots must be fired within 75 minutes.
The final of the best eight consists of 10 shots within 75 seconds per shot, and the score is evaluated in decimal tenths. The final result is added to the score of the opening program.
At this stage, I should also mention the Modern Pentathlon, which consists of Fencing, Horseback Riding, Running, Swimming and Shooting. The shooting event is a 10m air pistol event shot following essentially the same technical rules as ISSF air pistol. The primary differences are in number of shots, time restrictions and scoring. A pentathlete fires only 20 shots, with each shot being fired within 40 seconds (run similar to the air pistol finals series.) The event score is based on shooting 172 out of 200 on a standard ISSF air pistol target, giving the athlete 1000 points towards the aggregate. This is definitely a marksmanship event with high scores being achieved.
For every point above 172, the pentathlete gets 12 points added to the initial 1000 points. Therefore, if they shoot a perfect match (200/200) they will receive 1336 points toward their combined score. Similarly, every point below 172, they lose 12 points from their score (170/200 results in a score of 976.)
The principles of the marksmanship are equally applied in the modern pentathlon. This component is generally regarded as an excellent area for the pentathlete to increase their overall score. (An introductory precursor to the modern pentathlon is the tetrathlon, which is designed for youths and doesn't include fencing. Rules and venues are otherwise somewhat similar, incorporating air pistol.)To the Top
Shotgun events simulate the challenge of bringing down birds, although clay targets are as close as it gets these days. In trap, double trap and skeet competitions, shooters stand in shooting stations and fire at the clay targets, shaped like flying saucers, as they are released on the shooters' signals. In each event, the targets are propelled at high speed, and the person who hits the most wins.
In the trap and double-trap events, if a target isn't released immediately after a shooter's signal, the shooter may refuse to shoot by lowering the gun. The skeet event involves up to a three-second delay after the shooter's call for the target. If the target is not released within that time frame, the shooter again may refuse the target by lowering the firearm. In all shotgun events, a target is declared "hit" when it is shot according to the rules and at least one visible piece is broken from it.
In the trap events, named for the device that fires the clay targets into the air, a bank of three traps set at different heights and angles sits within the trench in front of each shooter. The heights range from one to four metres, and the shooter does not know which of the three traps will release next. As each target is released, the shooter is allowed two shots.
Athletes move through a series of five adjacent shooting stations. At each station, competitors mount their 12-gauge shotguns, call for the target and fire up to two shots per target. The targets, 111mm or four-inch clay discs, are thrown from an underground bunker a minimum distance of 70 meters and at speeds of up to 105 km/h or 65 miles per hour. The men's match consists of 125 targets, shot in five rounds of 25 over two days. Three rounds are fired on day one; two rounds plus the final are shot on day two. The women's match consists of 75 targets, shot in three rounds on one day plus final.
After the qualification round of 125 targets for men or 75 targets for women, the top six competitors advance to a 25 targets final round. The medals are awarded based on aggregate (qualification and final) scores.
In the skeet event, the two targets are released from separate trap houses at either end of a semicircle. The course of fire consists of either singles or doubles. A "single" target is thrown from either house. A "double" consists of two targets thrown simultaneously, one from each house.
Competitors move through a semi-circular range featuring eight shooting stations. At each station, single and/or double targets are thrown at least 65 meters from the high (3.05 meters above level ground) station or low (1.05 meters above level ground) station house on either side of the range. The 110mm or four-inch target travel at up to 88 km/h or 55 miles per hour and competitors may fire one shot per target. Competitors hold their 12-gauge shotguns at hip level until the target appears, which can be anywhere from 0-3 seconds after their call. The men's match consists of 125 targets, shot in five rounds of 25 over two days. Three rounds are fired on day one; two rounds plus the final are shot on day two. The women's match consists of 75 targets, shot in three rounds on one day plus final.
After the qualification round of 125 targets for men or 75 targets for women, the top six competitors advance to a 25 target final round. The medals are awarded based on aggregate (qualification and final) scores.
In the double trap, two targets are released simultaneously at different heights and angles from the centre bank of traps. The targets come off any of the three traps, ranging in height from 3 to 3 ½ metres, and the shooter fires one shot at each target.
Competitors fire 12-gauge shotguns from five adjacent shooting stations. At each station, the 110 mm or four-inch targets are thrown two at a time from an underground bunker at speeds up to 80 km/h or 50miles per hour. Competitors fire one shot per target. The men's match consists of 150 targets, shot in three rounds of 50 on one day. Women shoot three rounds of 40 for total of 120 targets.
In both events, the top six competitors advance to a final - 50 targets for men, 40 for women. The medals are awarded based on aggregate (qualification and final) scores.To the Top